Lottery is the process by which a prize (usually money) is awarded by drawing lots. The practice dates back to ancient times. The Old Testament includes a number of references to the casting of lots, and Roman emperors used lotteries to give away property and slaves during Saturnalian feasts. The modern lottery has evolved from the keno slips and other forms of chance-based gambling that were popular during the Chinese Han dynasty from about 205 to 187 BC. In modern times, the lottery is operated by state and federal governments and by private promoters. It is a form of gambling, and it is illegal in some countries.
Many people who play the lottery do so for entertainment value only, deciding that the non-monetary benefit outweighs the cost of a ticket and any potential losses. Lottery prizes are often based on a percentage of total ticket sales, so the more tickets are sold, the higher the prize. A large jackpot can also attract ticket buyers by generating a lot of free publicity on newscasts and web sites.
In a state-sponsored lottery, the proceeds are earmarked for a specified public good. This can help to win and retain broad public approval, particularly in a period of economic stress, when the prospect of tax increases or cuts in other services is a concern. But studies show that the popularity of a lottery is not directly related to the actual fiscal health of the state government; Lotteries have won broad public support even when states are in sound financial condition.
A large share of lottery proceeds is devoted to education. This is a worthy cause, but the fact is that most state lotteries promote a product that appeals primarily to certain groups of the population. The players are disproportionately low-income, less educated, and nonwhite. They are a distinctly different group from the population as a whole, and they spend far more on lottery tickets than do most other Americans.
Lottery advertising necessarily focuses on persuading these groups to spend their money on the lottery, and on convincing them that they are not spending too much. This is at cross-purposes with the public interest, and raises concerns about the effect on poor people and problem gamblers.
The fact that lottery promotions are geared to particular audiences rather than the general population also raises questions about whether it is an appropriate function for a state to perform. State legislatures and executive agencies are prone to making decisions piecemeal and incrementally, and the interests of the general public are often overlooked. Lottery officials are not immune to this problem; they must focus on maximizing revenues, and this tends to limit their flexibility.
State lotteries are a classic example of a policy area in which a government operates at cross-purposes with the public interest. The evidence suggests that lottery promotion can have negative consequences for some groups, and it should be evaluated carefully before being expanded to other areas.